How we discovered hints of new particles or the forces of nature – why it might change physics

Muen experiment. Credit: Reader Hon / Fermilab

Seven years ago, a large magnet was transported 3,200 miles (5,150 km) across land and sea, hoping to study a subatomic particle called the Muon.

Moons are closely related to electrons, which orbit each atom and form the building blocks of matter. Electron and Both have properties that are accurately predicted by our current best scientific theory that describes the subatomic, quantum world. .

A whole generation of scientists have dedicated themselves to measuring these properties neatly and in detail. In 2001, a test showed that one of Mune’s properties was incorrect Predicted, but new studies were needed to confirm. Physicists converted part of the experiment into a new accelerator at Fermilab and began taking data.

A New measurement Now the initial result has been confirmed. This means there may be new particles or forces that are not calculated in quality . As such, the laws of physics need to be amended so that no one knows where it will lead.

This latest decision came from an international collaboration in which we are both a part. Our team uses to measure a property called the magnetic moment of the muon.

Each muon acts like a small bar magnet when exposed to a magnetic field, the effect of which is called the magnetic moment. Mounds have an intrinsic property called “spin”, and the connection between the vortex and the magnetic moment of the mute is called the G-factor. The “gram” of the electron and muon is predicted to be two, so the gram minus two (G-2) must be measured to zero. This is what we test at Fermilab.

For these experiments, scientists used accelerators, the same technology used by CERN in the LHC. Fermilab accelerator produces muons on a very large scale and, precisely, how they interact with a magnetic field.

Mune’s behavior is affected by “virtual particles” that leave the vacuum. These are rapid, but how long the muon interacts with the magnetic field and changes the measured magnetic moment, albeit a small amount.

The standard model predicts very accurately, better than a fraction of a million, what this effect is. As long as we know what particles are bubbling in and out of the vacuum, experiment and theory should apply. But, if experiment and theory do not apply, our understanding of the soup of virtual particles may be incomplete.

New particles

The possibility of existing new particles is not passive speculation. Such particles can help explain many major problems in physics. For example, why is there so much dark matter in the universe — so the galaxies are spinning faster than we might expect — why have all the opposition created in the Big Bang disappeared?

The problem to date is that no one has seen any of these proposed new particles. It was believed that the LHC at CERN would generate them in collisions between high energy protons, but they have not yet been observed.

At the beginning of the new measurement century “used an experiment at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, which followed a series of measurements at CERN.

The Brookhaven experiment calculated a discrepancy with the standard model, which is likely to be a statistical dust of 5,000. It has the same probability of tossing a coin 12 times in a row, all upside down.

How we discovered hints of new particles or the forces of nature - why it might change physics

Prediction and results. Credit: Ryan Postel, Fermilab / Moon G-2 Collaboration

It was confusing, but way down the threshold of invention, which usually should be better than one in 1.7 million 21 or 21 coin blows in a row. To determine if new physics works, scientists need to increase the sensitivity of the experiment by four factors.

To make advanced measurements, the magnet at the center of the experiment had to be moved in 2013 from Long Island to Fermilab, 3,200 miles by sea and road, outside of Chicago, whose accelerators could produce large numbers of muons.

Once upon a time, a new experiment around magnetism was built with building inventors and equipment. The Mune G-2 experiment began taking data in 2017 in collaboration with the players of the Brookhaven experiment and the new generation of physicists.

The new results are in line with the measurements of the Brookhaven experiment, from the first year of data on Fermilab. Combining the results strengthens the case for the disagreement between the test measurement and the standard model. There is now a chance that one in 40,000 people will become a blockbuster — even more shy on the threshold of sustainable discovery of gold.


Interestingly, a recent observation of the LHCP experiment at CERN also found deviations from the standard model. The exciting thing about this is that it also refers to the properties of muons. This method differs in how muons and electrons are produced from heavier particles. The two ratios are expected to be identical in the standard model, but test measurement found that they are different.

Taken together, we have observed the first evidence of consistent model prognosis failure of LHCP and Fermilb results, and the discovery of new particles or forces in nature.

For final confirmation, this requires additional data from the FermiLab Muon test and CERN’s LHCP test. The results will come in the next few years. Fermilab already has four times more data than was used in this latest decision, is currently being analyzed and CERN is starting to take in more data, and new generation Muon tests are being developed. This is an exciting era for physics.

The new estimate of Mune’s magnetic field strength is consistent with the standard model of particle physics.


This article has been republished Conversation Under the Creative Commons license. To read Original article.Conversation

Quote: How We Discovered Signs of New Particles or the Powers of Nature – Why It Can Change Physics (2021, April 9) 9 April 2021

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Sophia Harrison

Part time worker

I'm Sophia Harrison working as a part-time staff at the Costco since the past year until I become as an author at the iron blade, hope I can use my experiences with the supermarkets here.

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