Seven years ago, a large magnet was transported 3,200 miles (5,150 km) across land and sea, hoping to study a subatomic particle called the Muon.
Moons are closely related to electrons, which orbit each atom and form the building blocks of matter. Both the electron and the muon have properties that are accurately predicted by our current best scientific theory that describes the subatomic, quantum world. Standard model of particle physics.
A whole generation of scientists have dedicated themselves to measuring these properties neatly and in detail. In 2001, an experiment indicated that a standard model of a property in Mune was not exactly as predicted, but new studies were needed to confirm it. Physicists converted part of the experiment into a new accelerator at Fermilab and began taking data.
A New measurement Now the initial result has been confirmed. This means that there may be new particles or forces that are not calculated in the standard model. As such, the laws of physics need to be amended so that no one knows where it will lead.
This latest decision came from an international collaboration in which we are both a part. Our team uses particle accelerators to measure a property called the Moon’s magnetic moment.
When each muon is exposed to a magnetic field it acts like a small band magnet, the result of which is called the magnetic moment. Mions have an intrinsic property called “spin”, and the connection between the vortex and the magnetic moment of the muon is called the G-factor. The “gram” of the electron and muon is predicted to be two, so the gram minus two (G-2) must be measured to zero. This is what we test at Fermilab.
For these experiments, scientists used accelerators, the same technology used by CERN in the LHC. Fermilab accelerator produces muons on a very large scale and, precisely, how they interact with a magnetic field.
Mune’s behavior is affected by “virtual particles” appearing in and out of the vacuum. These are quick, but how Muon interacts with the magnetic field over a long period of time and alters the measured magnetic moment even a small amount.
The standard model predicts very accurately, better than a fraction of a million, what this effect is. As long as we know what particles are bubbling in and out of the vacuum, experiment and theory should apply. But, if experiment and theory do not apply, our understanding of the soup of virtual particles may be incomplete.
The possibility of existing new particles is not passive speculation. Such particles can help explain many major problems in physics. Why, for example, the universe exists Very dark thing – The galaxies are spinning faster than we expect – and why have all the resistance created in the Big Bang disappeared?
The problem to date is that no one has seen any of these proposed new particles. The Large Hadron collision (LHC) at CERN was believed to generate them in collisions between high energy protons, but they have not yet been observed.
At the beginning of the new measurement century, an experiment was used at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, which followed a series of measurements at CERN.
The Brookhaven experiment calculated a discrepancy with the standard model, which is likely to be a statistical dust of 5,000. It has the same probability of tossing a coin 12 times in a row, all upside down.
It was confusing, but way down the threshold of invention, which should generally be better than one in 1.7 million – or throw 21 coins in a row. To determine if the new physics is working, scientists need to increase the sensitivity of the experiment by four factors.
To make advanced measurements, the magnet at the center of the experiment had to be moved in 2013 from Long Island, 3,200 miles by sea and road to Fermilab outside Chicago, whose accelerators could produce large numbers of muons.
Once upon a time, a new experiment around magnetism was built with building inventors and equipment. In collaboration with the Brookhaven Experiment players and the new generation of physicists, the Mune G-2 test began taking data in 2017.
The new results are in line with the measurements of the Brookhaven experiment, from the first year of data on Fermilab. Combining the results strengthens the case for the disagreement between the test measurement and the standard model. There is now a chance that one in 40,000 people will become a blockbuster – still ashamed at the threshold of sustainable discovery of gold.
Mysteriously, a Recent observation of the LHCb test CERN also found possible deviations from the standard model. The exciting thing about this is that it also refers to the properties of muons. This method differs in how muons and electrons are produced from heavier particles. The two ratios are expected to be identical in the standard model, but test measurement found that they are different.
Taken together, we have observed the first evidence of consistent model prognosis failure of LHCP and Fermilb results, and the discovery of new particles or forces in nature.
For final confirmation, this requires additional data from the FermiLab Muon test and CERN’s LHCP test. The results will come in the next few years. Fermilab already has four times more data than was used in this latest conclusion, is currently being analyzed, and CERN is starting to take in more data, and new generation Muon tests are being developed. This is an exciting era for physics.
This article Themis Bowack, Professor of Particle Physics, University of Liverpool And Mark Lancaster, Professor of Physics, University of Manchester, Republished from Conversation Under the Creative Commons license. To read Original article.